Auxin response factors (ARF) are key players in plant development.They mediate the cellular response to the plant hormone auxin by activating or repressing the expression of downstream developmental genes.If you have never flown a large model, the Ather is confidence inspiring, a great way to enter large model flying.All up the Aether is a stunning piece of kit and we're sure you'll love flying it.
To determine the evolutionary origin of this characteristic architecture, we built a comprehensive data set of 224 ARF-related protein sequences that represents all major living divisions of land plants, except hornworts. Often dates will be preceded with a "c." or a "ca." These are abbreviations of the Latin word "circa" which means around, or approximately. All this because, according to the calendar we use, the 1st Century included the years 1-100 (there was no year zero), and the 2nd Century, the years 101-200. means approximately 400 years Before the Common Era. Similarly when we say "20th Century," we are referring to the 1900s. We propose that the loss of domains from the canonical, four-domain ARF structure has promoted functional shifts within the ARF family by disrupting either dimerization or DNA-binding capabilities.For instance, the loss of dimerization domains in some ARFs from moss and spikemoss genomes leads to proteins that are reminiscent of Aux/IAA proteins, possibly providing a clue on the evolution of these modulators of ARF function.